The contrary forces of innovation: a conceptual model for studying networked innovation processes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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In this paper, we argue that industrial innovation processes can productively be analyzed as consisting of two sub-processes that over time create and mobilize contrary forces within both internal and external interactions of the innovation project. One of these forces emerges from the process of mobilizing resources, activities, and actors in ensuring commitments to the project over time. The other is the process of explorative learning, which continues to create revised or even new propositions about the realities of the project and its opportunities. We argue that this analytical distinction permits us to expand our understanding of how friction forces develop over time in business networks (Håkansson & Waluszewski, 2001ab), the patterns of divergence and convergence in innovation processes as identified by Van de Ven et al. (1999) and the processes of “path creation through mindful deviation” as argued by Garud and Karnøe (2001).
This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article