The long-term energy transition: Drivers, outcomes, and the role of the multinational enterprise
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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- Scientific articles 
Original versionJournal of International Business Studies. 2021, 52 (5), 807-823. 10.1057/s41267-021-00432-3
The pre-eminence of the production and consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels is waning with the growth of renewable energy solutions. This long-term energy (LTE) transition is one of the global grand challenges, characterized by uncertain and evolving markets. Although this is a global issue, there are regional differences and non-linear trajectories that suggest that the LTE transition is a complex challenge for firms and countries. For international business scholars, questions related to the role and effect of multinational enterprises in the context of the LTE transition have opened new avenues for advancing theoretical, managerial, and policy understanding. Thus, we advance this body of research by presenting a framework that delineates important drivers and outcomes of the transition. In this way, we emphasize how MNEs both influence and are being influenced by the LTE transition. We identify theoretical perspectives that may be useful to address LTE transition challenges, and suggest avenues for future research on this global grand challenge.