The effect of music tempo on perceived crowding in retailing
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- Master of Science 
In the marketing field the influence of in-store atmospherics on consumers’ shopping behavior is widely accepted. We seek to understand the effects of instore music tempo on perceived crowding and how music tempo can affect emotions, arousal and perceived control occurring in retail stores. Hence, our research questions are the following: Does music tempo influence the perceived crowding? Do arousal, perceived control, positive and negative emotions, mediate the relationship between music tempo and perceived crowding? In line with these research questions, we formulate four hypotheses: (1) fast tempo music will increase arousal, (2.a) fast tempo music will decrease negative and (2.b) increase positive emotions, (3) fast music will increase perceived control, (4) music tempo influences the perceived crowding via four mediators. The pretest and three studies were conducted in order to check our hypotheses. The laboratory experiment was designed as a 3 (low-density: medium-density: high-density) x 3 (no music: slow music: fast music) and 2 (low: high) x 3 randomized between-subject factorial design with perceived crowding as the dependent variable. Significant main effects of density condition and music tempo were found, in addition to partially significant results for approach/avoidance tendency and pleasure-arousal-dominance behavioral responses. Keywords: Perceived crowding, density condition, music tempo, PAD, approach/avoidance.
Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Strategic Marketing Management - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2016