• A large sample study on the influence of the multisensory environment on the wine drinking experience 

      Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos; Knöferle, Klemens (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Background: Researchers have demonstrated that a variety of visual factors, such as the colour and balance of the elements on a plate, can influence a diner’s perception of, and response to, food. Here, we report on a ...
    • Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behaviour 

      Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Exaggerated portion sizes are generally pictured on the front of product packaging in order to stimulate food craving and encourage consumer purchasing decisions. However, one problem with such images is that they can set ...
    • Contextual acceptance of insect-based foods 

      Motoki, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Insect-based foods have gained much attention as an alternative source of protein in recent years because of their high nutritional content and low production costs. However, consumer acceptance of insect-based foods still ...
    • Digital sensory marketing: Integrating new technologies into multisensory online experience 

      Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      People are increasingly purchasing (e.g., food, clothes) and consuming (e.g., movies, courses) online where, traditionally, the sensory interaction has mostly been limited to visual, and to a lesser extent, auditory inputs. ...
    • Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls 

      Spence, Charles; Obrist, Marianna; Velasco, Carlos; Ranasinghe, Nimesha (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Many people are understandably excited by the suggestion that the chemical senses can be digitized; be it to deliver ambient fragrances (e.g., in virtual reality or health-related applications), or else to transmit flavour ...
    • Extrinsic Auditory Contributions to Food Perception & Consumer Behaviour: An Interdisciplinary Review 

      Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; Wang, Qian Janice (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Food product-extrinsic sounds (i.e., those auditory stimuli that are not linked directly to a food or beverage product, or its packaging) have been shown to exert a significant influence over various aspects of food ...
    • Factors influencing the choice of beer: A review 

      Betancur, Maria Isabel; Motoki, Kosuke; Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Research on those variables that have been shown to influence the consumer’s choice of beer is reviewed. The focus is on the choice of whether to drink beer as opposed to a beverage from another category, and to a greater ...
    • Multisensory Brand Search: How the Meaning of Sounds Guides Consumers’ Visual Attention 

      Knöferle, Klemens; Knöferle, Pia; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers’ visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related ...
    • Multisensory technology for flavor augmentation: A mini review 

      Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This ...
    • Music to make your mouth water? Assessing the potential influence of sour music on salivation 

      Wang, Qian J.; Knöferle, Klemens; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is ...
    • On the localization of tastes and tasty products in 2D space 

      Velasco, Carlos; Adams, Carmen; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      People map different sensory stimuli, and words that describe/refer to those stimuli, onto spatial dimensions in a manner that is non-arbitrary. Here, we evaluate whether people also associate basic taste words and products ...
    • On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the ‘food and beverage’ and ‘home and personal care’ categories 

      Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or ...
    • Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength 

      Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knöferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors ...
    • Symmetry and its role in the crossmodal correspondence between shape and taste 

      Turoman, Nora; Velasco, Carlos; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Pi-Chun; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused ...
    • Tasting names: Systematic investigations of taste-speech sounds associations 

      Motoki, Kosuke; Saito, Toshiki; Park, Jaewood; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles; Sugiura, Motoaki (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Product names can be developed to effectively convey specific sensory attributes to the consumer. Most of the previous research on crossmodal correspondences has shown that people selectively associate words (e.g., ‘Maluma’, ...
    • That sounds sweet: using cross-modal correspondences to communicate gustatory attributes 

      Knöferle, Klemens; Woods, Andy; Käppler, Florian; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Building on existing research into sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondences, this article proposes that crossmodal correspondences—systematic mappings between different sensory modalities—can be used to communicate ...
    • The role of typeface curvilinearity on taste expectations and perception 

      Velasco, Carlos; Hyndman, Sarah; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      People associate specific shape properties with basic taste attributes (such as sweet, bitter, and sour). It has been suggested that more preferred visual aesthetic features are matched to sweetness whereas less-preferred ...
    • The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages 

      Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T.; Wan, Xiaoang; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Bernal-Torres, Cesar; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      People associate tastes and taste words (e.g., “bitter,” “sweet,” etc.) with shape features in predictable ways. In the present study, we evaluate how the curvature and boldness of typeface influences the gustatory taste ...
    • What drives sound symbolism? Different acoustic cues underlie sound-size and sound-shape mappings 

      Knöferle, Klemens; Li, Jixing; Maggioni, Emanuela; Spence, Charles (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Sound symbolism refers to the non-arbitrary mappings that exist between phonetic properties of speech sounds and their meaning. Despite there being an extensive literature on the topic, the acoustic features and psychological ...