The Extent of Perceived Exposure to Economic Crime in Public and Private Business: Survey Research in Norway
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- Scientific articles 
Original versionJournal of Economic Criminology. 2023, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconc.2023.100037
Half of all finance and insurance firms in Norway report that they are exposed to economic crime, particularly fraud, every year. On the other hand, only eighteen percent in public administration and defense perceive similar exposure to economic crime. However, the estimated fraction of unreported, non-registered economic crime in the country is ninety-four percent. These numbers are some of the results from surveys conducted in Norway in 2005, 2010, and 2023. This article applies the main economic crime categories of fraud, theft, manipulation, and corruption as used by scholars to study the survey results. The corruption category shows the largest gap between perceived exposure and police statistics. Comparison to white-collar crime research indicates higher frequency of theft at the street level and higher frequency of manipulation at the upper echelon. Comparison to future surveys in other countries is encouraged.