The positive feedback loop between academic self-efficacy, academic initiative, and grade point average: a parallel process latent growth curve model
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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- Scientific articles 
Original versionEducational Psychology. 2023, 43 (7), 835-853. 10.1080/01443410.2023.2242603
This study investigates the associations between students’devel-opmental changes in academic self-efficacy, academic initiative,and grade point average (GPA) during a three-year upper second-ary education. The sample consisted of 1453 students aged 16–19(60.6% girls; baseline mean age¼17.00,SD¼.91; 56.1% highperceived family wealth; and 74.9% Norwegian-born). To explorehow changes in academic self-efficacy, academic initiative, andGPA were related, we investigated a theoretical parallel processlatent growth curve model. The results implied that, during uppersecondary school, academic self-efficacy declined, while academicinitiative and GPA remained stable. We found possible ceilingeffects within and between several of the study’s constructs. Themain finding was support for a positive feedback loop betweenthe developmental trajectories of academic self-efficacy, academicinitiative, and GPA. The present study adds new insight thatshould be taken into consideration when promoting positive edu-cational development during late secondary school.