From LBDQXII to LBDQ50: preferred leader behavior measurement across cultures
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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- Scientific articles 
Original versionJournal of Management Development. 2019, 39 (1). 10.1108/JMD-03-2019-0067
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to refine and validate the most widely used leader behavior measurement instrument, LBDQXII, into a more parsimonious instrument for assessing cognitive templates of preferred leader behavior across cultures. Design/methodology/approach The 100-item LBDQXII survey was administered to 6,451 participants from 14 countries; these data were used to refine the survey. Findings The shorter survey instrument is a valid and reliable tool for assessing preferred leader behavior. Four periods in the LBDQXII “evolution” are identified: emergence, expansion, stagnation and revival. Research limitations/implications The new LBDQ50 can be used to collect data across cultures, contributing to both global management development and scholarly studies. Practical implications This project corresponds to calls to shorten the well-established leader behavior instrument into a measurement tool that is reliable and valid across cultures and languages. This can be administered by both private and public organizations, contributing to greater effectiveness. Furthermore, it retains its scholarly scope encompassing follower-centric studies of leadership. Social implications Leadership processes are found in all aspects of life and can be better understood and improved within and across cultures using the shorter version. Originality/value An efficient instrument to measure preferred leadership behavior across and within cultures. The availability of the LBDQ50 will allow practitioners and researchers to advance understanding of preferred leadership behavior as a predictor of organizational effectiveness. Most such instruments are overly-long, which hinders data collection opportunities. This newly developed instrument can lead to better response rates and easier applicability in organizational settings.