Leading through change: a qualitative study of culture and leadership’s impact on the implementation of “nærpolitireformen”
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- Master of Science 
Research on empowerment has to this date been inconsistent with respect to the logical structure of concepts, and research on the effectiveness of empowerment has provided mixed results. The findings of this study may shed light on the previous, inconsistent results found in empowerment research, which are considered problematic to its theory development (Kirkman & Shapiro, 2001). To address this issue, the present paper will test the moderating role of leader prototypicality in the relationship between two leadership empowerment behaviours, respectively encouraging self-development and encouraging independent action, and organizational citizenship behaviours directed towards the organization (OCB-O) and towards the individual (OCB-I). We propose a model where leader prototypicality work as a moderator on the positive relationship between empowering leadership behaviour (encouraging independent action and encouraging self-development) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB-O and OCB-I). In order to explore this relationship, a crosssectional study among 88 employees and 13 leaders from in total three different organizations in Norway were conducted. Through multilevel analysis, the results showed that encouraging independent action and encouraging self-development had a positive and significant relationship with OCB-O, while they had a nonsignificant relationship to OCB-I. In regards to the moderating effect of leader prototypicality, our results concluded that it marginally supported the relationship for the two leadership empowerment behaviours in relation to OCB-I. However, the results also showed that the moderating effect of leader prototypicality on the relationship between encouraging self-development and OCB-O was nonsignificant. In contrast, our results showed that encouraging independent action and OCB-O had a significant and positive relationship when moderated by leader prototypicality. These findings suggest that leaders who are high in leader prototypicality and engage in certain types of empowering leadership such as independent action, are more likely to have employees that are rising above and beyond their job description to benefit the organization as a whole. While other types of leader empowering behaviour like self-development appear to be not as effective. Future research is recommended to investigate its boundary conditions. Discussion of our findings, implications and directions for future research is deliberated.
Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Leadership and Organizational Psychology - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2019