|Purpose: This master thesis has three main objectives. The first aim is to
investigate the influence of scarcity appeals on consumer purchase behaviors. The
second aim is to investigate the moderator effect of goal frames (gain goal,
hedonic goal and normative goal) on the relationship between scarcity appeals and
consumer purchase intention. The third objective is to explore the mediating effect
of consumer perceived competition on the link between the scarcity appeals and
consumer purchase intention.
Scope: This research is based on a field experiment with a sample of 13,780 users
in collaboration with the company Norwayshop, and two survey based
experiments with a sample of 220 respondents.
Findings: The results reveal important findings that will contribute to the
marketing literature. This research shows that demand-based scarcity has both a
direct effect on consumer purchase intention and an indirect effect through
perceived consumer competition on purchase intention. On the other hand,
although supply-based scarcity shows an insignificant direct effect on purchase
intention, it shows a significant indirect effect on purchase intention through
perceived consumer competition.
At the same time, the study provides evidence that there exists an interaction
effect between goal frame messages and scarcity appeals on purchase intention.
There are some particular combinations between scarcity appeals and goal frames
which generate a higher consumer purchase intention than others. The findings
conclude the following combinations to be the best to achieve higher purchase
intention: (1) demand-based scarcity message with a gain goal message; (2)
demand-based scarcity message with a normative goal message; (3) supply-based
scarcity message with a hedonic goal message.
Last, the findings show an insignificant interaction effect between demand-based
scarcity and supply-based scarcity on perceived consumer competition. However,
the results still show that combining demand-based scarcity and supply-based
scarcity generates higher purchase intention compared with other scarcity
conditions. Contribution: This research, unlike prior studies, examines the effect of different
types of scarcity appeals separately as well as the interaction effect between them.
In addition, the study uncovered the role of goal frames and perceived consumer
competition in the relationship between scarcity appeals and customer purchase
behaviors. It is also the first time in the scarcity field to test the effect of scarcity
appeals in a field setting by collaborating with an e-commerce company.