• Critical Realism: A Critical Evaluation 

      Zhang, Tong (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Critical realism, championed by its proponents as the most promising post-positivist social science paradigm, has gained significant influence in the last few decades. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the ...
    • Ethics and Society: A Theory of Comparative Worldviews 

      Zhang, Tong (Journal article, 2022)
      This article outlines a theist social science paradigm. The central thesis, derived from the assumption of an omnibenevolent and powerful God, is the Law of Divine Selection. It states that the motives of people, or the ...
    • The Illusion of Meritocracy 

      Zhang, Tong (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2023)
      Meritocracy claims to reward the meritorious with more resources, thereby achieving social efficiency and justice in a level playground. This article argues that the rise of meritocracy in a society is the institutional ...
    • The Logic of Wasteful Production 

      Zhang, Tong (Journal article, 2022)
      Economic neoliberalism promises social efficiency with self-interested participants and free competition. This doctrine is challenged by the extensive production of wasteful goods and services in the contemporary West. By ...
    • Was Weber Really Wrong? A Comment on Some Recent Empirical Studies on Economic Growth 

      Zhang, Tong (Journal article, 2021)
      In the last two decades, there have been two influential papers in empirical economic growth, Becker and Woessmann (2009) and Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2001), which explicitly or implicitly claim that Weber's thesis ...
    • Was Weber Really Wrong? A Comment on Some Recent Empirical Studies on Economic Growth 

      Zhang, Tong (Journal article, 2021)
      In the last two decades, there have been two influential papers in empirical economic growth, Becker and Woessmann (2009) and Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2001), which explicitly or implicitly claim that Weber's thesis ...