• Measuring the Competitiveness of Elections 

      Cox, Gary W.; Fiva, Jon Hernes; Smith, Daniel M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      The concept of electoral competition plays a central role in many subfields of political science, but no consensus exists on how to measure it. One key challenge is how to conceptualize and measure electoral competitiveness ...
    • Parties, Legislators, and the Origins of Proportional Representation 

      Cox, Gary W.; Fiva, Jon H.; Smith, Daniel M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A prominent line of theories holds that proportional representation (PR) was introduced in many European democracies by a fragmented bloc of conservative parties seeking to preserve their legislative seat shares after ...
    • The contraction effect: How proportional representation affects mobilization and turnout 

      Cox, Gary W.; Fiva, Jon H.; Smith, Daniel M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      A substantial body of research examines whether increasing the proportionality of an electoral system increases turnout, mostly based on cross-national comparisons. In this study, we offer two main contributions to the ...
    • The Contraction Effect: How Proportional Representation Affects Mobilization and Turnout 

      Cox, Gary W.; Fiva, Jon H.; Smith, Daniel M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      A substantial body of research examines whether increasing the proportionality of an electoral system increases turnout, mostly based on cross-national comparisons. In this study, we offer two main contributions to the ...